Sunday, September 27, 2009

Ice on Mars, exposed by impact craters

Report: 058.

Every time I liked the news from the NASA more.

This time, they show us without publicity, or the pressure of public opinion, some pictures of impact of small meteorites on Mars
Before, going to the main topic of this article, I clarify; I am surprised again and again on Mars satellite technology.
From satellites of the earth we does not know much either, as they work. We are looking carefully at the weather map every day, without much thought, that the prognosis is the result of images made from satellite and calculation of the transmitted data such as speed, cloud density and temperature at various heights above the land.
Other satellites prepare cartographic maps, or help us, not losing, but not on the mountain, or in the jungle, but on the streets of cities. The GPS, increasingly common, including on mobile, for the common folk people with little memory, help them to find the supermarket, and they can return home safely. Young readers will not believe, but the old models, I mean, people with an age greater than twenty years, until a few survivors with the age of one hundred years, still have biological memory, constantly had to remind the way home, to the factory, or office, and cinema, and the right way, that they will return to your home. Bars on the way saved a lot of their guests in and tell them to remind their way home.

That was a bit for humor, but I will go on serious, because this technology works well on Mars. Satellite-guided, with remote control, are taking pictures automatically, but you can give them exact instructions of a certain location, where an image is required.

This fact is surprising to me because everything is in motion. The satellite, the Mars, the sun and the orders of NASA engineers via a data transmission with electromagnetic frequency. Imagine, just one small part of Mars is mapped, at least in high resolution.

Each image from Mars is considered at once, via computer and visual, I know of few people, possibly hundreds or thousands. Important images are analyzed by experts and if it is of great importance, the satellite goes on the same coordinated again. That is the secret, which I do not understand.

In the time from discovery to the notice to the satellite via radio, hours and days passed. Everything is already elsewhere. How they can redirect a satellite in an exact orbit. Fuel has a satellite so, I know, but so much fuel to change direction, turn or accelerate or break, more than a handful of times? It must be because they will not wait, to find this important place again.

It was a little long my speech, on satellites, better take as a fact, it works, when they want and forget the technology. We cannot know everything. For that is the specialists, but as tell the word, they do not know everything, just because they are specialists, and we are on hand. Each has its gaps and shadows and on the other hand, with his brilliant skills.

NASA offers us a story, which of course, for some researchers and observers humble is not new, but new is the freedom with which we are informed, that is, and now comes the notice that there is liquid water on Mars.

Without much noise and propaganda is published, there is ice on the floor and in the underground, which means underground ice on Mars.

For younger readers, capable, this is not so surprising news, but for me always has a taste of irony inside. Before, it was a joke to talk about rivers, although dry, seen on the surface of Mars from Earth. He was also a joke to find planets outside the eight others who have, or at least stated as such. Well, I swallow the irony that truth comes in drops, even if it is raining heavily.

Let’s look forward, or rather to Mars, to our sister planet, more like our earth.

NASA checked in recent months new images, with images made from the same place some months earlier. Surprise! There meteorite impacts, fortunately not so large, small or small parts of some larger meteor that broke apart before impact on the soil of Mars.

There, before proceeding, the question is, because it breaks a meteorite before it hits? The logic is, by friction with an atmosphere, it heats up exploding in several parts. Furthermore, these impacts are then the presence of a dense atmosphere. Finally meteorite crashed, and I am nearing the end of my story.

What is the final story, or disclosure of such impacts? Few centimeters below the surface of Mars there is frozen water. With a mild impact of a meteorite, who just entered a meter to the surface because the water breaks through and comes to the surface? Many times I suggested to my readers, what forms of life are going with their roots to the underground water that’s in the depths.

Now it’s official, there water on the surface, not in the bowels of Mars. There still is much more secure.

Here I show the map presented by NASA on your website. Below are links and addresses, leading to the original site.

Some acronyms, letters and numbers mark, five different locations of impact of a meteorite, which crashed recently, and also, where liquid water came to the surface.

The ice or water on the surface has little life. That we know from the Phoenix, as he sent us pictures of ice under his platform, which vanished before him, the Phoenix, he could put in his oven. An ice wherever it is, not left to burn easily.

Coincidentally, at the very spot where once the Viking 2 landed (on the map with the initials VL 2) is also ice. Viking 2 was unable to dig so deep, and was unable to determine the presence of ice or water, although they suspect even then, there is.

Just get a positive result was impossible, the analysts themselves incredibility of results. They did not believe their own instruments, and rejected the result, with the argument that the evidence is contaminated with water from the earth. The black dots, from 1-5 are the impacts.
The color coding indicates depths to the top of a water-ice-containing layer, ranging from 1 centimeter (about half an inch) in dark-blue coded locations to 10 meters (33 feet) in red-coded locations.

This map shows five locations where fresh impact cratering has excavated water ice from just beneath the surface of Mars (sites 1 through 5) and the Viking Lander 2 landing site (VL2), in the context of color coding to indicate estimated depth to ice.

The map covers an area from 40 to 60 degrees north latitude and from 130 to 190 degrees east longitude. Estimates of the depth to water-ice come from a computer model and observations of the brightness and temperature of the surface. The model matches the ice-exposing crater observations by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and data from the neutron spectrometer on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

Analysis of the observations of ice-exposing fresh craters at sites 1 through 5, reported by Byrne et al. in a Sept. 25, 2009, paper in the journal Science, leads the paper's authors to calculate that if NASA's Viking Lander 2 had been able to dig slightly deeper than the 10-to-15-centimeter-deep (4-to-6-inch-deep) trench that it excavated in 1976, it would have hit water ice.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter took these images of a fresh, 6-meter-wide (20-foot-wide) crater on Mars on Oct. 18, 2008, (left) and on Jan. 14, 2009. Each image is 35 meters (115 feet) across. This crater's depth is estimated to be 1.33 meters (4.4 feet).

The impact exposed water ice from below the surface. It is the bright material visible in this pair of images. The change in appearance from the earlier image to the later one resulted from some of the ice sublimating away during the Martian northern-hemisphere summer, leaving behind dust that had been intermixed with the ice. The thickening layer of dust on top obscured the remaining ice.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

Material Excavated by a Fresh Impact and Identified as Water Ice
The bright material conspicuous in this image was excavated from below the surface and deposited nearby by a 2008 impact that dug a crater about 8 meters (26 feet) in diameter. The extent of the bright patch was large enough for the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, an instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, to obtain information confirming the material to be water ice.
Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

Thank giving to NASA for this IMAGES AND DECLARATION, and for their sincere declaration, there is water on Mars.
 Josef Bauer

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